Non-Native Plant Species Invasiveness Assessment

In 2008, The Nature Conservancy (TNC) in New York and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) developed a system and protocol designed to assess the invasive nature of non-native plant species. The New York State Invasive Species Council, in consultation with the Invasive Species Advisory Committee, adopted the ranking system for use statewide. In addition, results of this work have informed invasive species legislation in Nassau and Suffolk Counties.

Consequences to the native species and natural ecosystems of New York are the focus of the ranking system. The ranking system is designed to be repeatable, based on the best available science, clearly explained, and fully documented. The system can be used to assess non-native plant species that are established in New York State, species that are new arrivals, as well as species that are not yet present. Additional information about the system can be found in "New York State Plant Ranking System for Evaluating Non-Native Plant Species for Invasiveness".

Species are assessed at a statewide level using the New York State assessment form. Questions are organized into four broad categories:

  1. ecological impact
  2. biological characteristic and dispersal ability
  3. ecological amplitude and distribution
  4. difficulty of control


In order to better inform local efforts, species can be further assessed using the Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management (PRISM) form.

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden plans to assess a total of 180 species in 2008-2009. Species assessments are reviewed, edited, and approved by a committee of stakeholders designated as the Scientific Review Committee (SRC). Voting members of the SRC include scientists, nursery professionals, Cornell Cooperative Extension and land managers at the County, State and Federal levels. A supplemental review is conducted by qualified specialists throughout the State prior to submission to the Advisory Committee and Council for final approval. As assessment forms are completed and approved, they will be posted on this website.

Click here for Invasiveness Assessment Scores and Ranks for 183 Nonnative Plan Species in NYS - as of March 2013

The NYS Department of Environmental Conservation has published draft invasive species regulations for public comment. The associated documents are available on the Department's Lands and Forests Emergency, Proposed & Recently Adopted Regulations web page at: http://www.dec.ny.gov/regulations/2359.html.


New York State Plant Species Assessments

Scientific Name Common Name Ecological Rank Score NYS Profile Map

Acer ginnala

Amur maple M 66.22 NYS PDF    

Acer palmatum Thunb.

Japanese maple M 50 NYS PDF    

Acer platanoides

Norway maple VH 82 NYS PDF    

Acer pseudoplatanus

Sycamore maple H 71.11 NYS PDF    

Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai (syn. Achyranthes bidentata var. japonica Miq.)

Japanese Chaff Flower H 71.08 NYS PDF    

Aegopodium podagraria

Bishop's goutweed M 63.75 NYS PDF    

Agrostis gigantea Roth (Agrostis alba auct. non L.; Agrostis gigantea Roth var. dispar (Michx.) Philipson; Agrostis nigra With.; Agrostis stolonifera L. ssp. gigantea (Roth) Schuebl. & Martens; Agrostis stolonifera L. var. major (Gaudin) Farw.)

Redtop, black bentgrass M 67.5 NYS PDF    

Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle

Tree of heaven M 68 NYS PDF    

Akebia quinata

Chocolate vine M 52.38 NYS PDF    

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

Silktree, mimosa L 40 NYS PDF    

Alliaria petiolata

Garlic mustard VH 84 NYS PDF    

Alnus glutinosa

European alder, black alder M 64.44 NYS PDF    

Amelopsis brevipedunculata

Porcelain berry H 71.26 NYS PDF    

Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm.

Wild chervil H 78.75 NYS PDF    

Aralia elata

Japanese angelica tree VH 80.46 NYS PDF    

Artemesia vulgaris L.

Common wormwood, Mugwort H 79.31 NYS PDF    

Arthraxon hispidus

Small carpgrass H 75.68 NYS PDF    

Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl. (including ssp. giantea and ssp. tecta (Walter) McClure [=A. tecta (Walter) Muhl.])

Bamboo, canebreak, giant cane NA 59.74 NYS PDF    

Berberis thunbergii (incl. B. ottowensis)

Japanese barberry VH 91 NYS PDF    

Berberis vulgaris

Common barberry M 68.75 NYS PDF    

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. ssp. sylvaticum

Slender falsebrome VH 86.6 NYS PDF    

Bromus tectorum L.

Cheat grass, downy brome M 50 NYS PDF    

Buddleja davidii Franch.

Orange-eye butterfly bush L 45.45 NYS PDF    

Butomus umbellatus L.

flowering-rush M 63.75 NYS PDF    

Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray, Ann

Carolina fanwort H 72.34 NYS PDF    

Callitriche stagnalis Scop.

Pond water-starwort L 48.75 NYS PDF    

Caragana arborescens Lam.

Siberian peashrub U   NYS PDF    

Cardamine impatiens L.

Narrowleaf bittercress H 76.32 NYS PDF    

Carex kobomugi/C. macrocephala

Japanese sedge/largehead sedge M 68.6 NYS PDF    

Caulerpa taxifolia

Killer alga NA   NYS PDF    

Celastrus orbiculatus

Oriental bittersweet VH 86.67 NYS PDF    

Centaurea jacea s.l. (including C. nigra, C. nigrescens, C. xmoncktonii)

Black knapweed, black star-thistle, brown knapweed, brown ray knapweed, brown star-thistle, lesser knapweed, meadow knapweed, protean knapweed, short-fringed knapweed, short-fringed star-thistle, tyrol knapweed, vochin knapweed M 62.34 NYS PDF    

Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos s.l. (including C. biebersteinii, C. diffusa, C. maculosa misapplied, C. xpsammogena)

Spotted knapweed, spotted star-thistle H 78.89 NYS PDF    

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (C. setosum, C. incanum, Carduus arvensis, Serratula arvensis & all varieties of C. arvense)

Creeping thistle, Californian thistle, Canada thistle, field thistle H 71 NYS PDF    

Cirsium palustre (L.) Scop (Carduus palustris)

Marsh thistle, European swamp thistle M 67.9 NYS PDF    

Clematis terniflora

Japanese virgin's-bower H 72.6 NYS PDF    

Coronilla varia (Securigera varia)

Crownvetch M 62.07 NYS PDF    

Cynanchum louiseae

Black swallow-wort VH 89.69 NYS PDF    

Cynanchum rossicum

European swallow-wort VH 87.63 NYS PDF    

Cyperus difformis L.

Variable flatsedge M 51.95 NYS PDF    

Datura stramonium L.

Jimsonweed, common thorn apple, Jamestown weed, purple thorn apple M 50 NYS PDF    

Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

Grecian foxglove L 36.78 NYS PDF    

Digitalis purpurea L

Purple foxglove M 53.33 NYS PDF    

Dioscorea polystachya (D. oppositifolia L. misapplied)

Chinese yam, Cinnamon vine H 77.5 NYS PDF    

Dipsacus laciniatus L.

Cut-leaf teasel H 75.56 NYS PDF    

Egeria densa Planchon

Brazilian waterweed H 74.71 NYS PDF    

Eichhornia crassipes

Common water-hyacinth NA   NYS PDF    

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Russian olive M 68 NYS PDF    

Elaeagnus umbellata

Autumn olive VH 94 NYS PDF    

Eleutherococcus pentaphyllus (Siebold & Zucc.) Nakai (Synonyms: Eleutherococcus seiboldianus (Makino) Koidzumi;
Acanthopanax sieboldianus Makino)

Five-leaved Aralia NA   NYS PDF    

Epilobium hirsutum L.

Great hairy willow-herb, codlins & cream M 62.5 NYS PDF    

Eragrostis curvula

Weeping lovegrass M 57.14 NYS PDF    

Euonymus alatus

Winged burning bush, winged euonymus VH 81.25 NYS PDF    

Euonymus europaeus L.

European spindletree M 60 NYS PDF    

Euonymus fortunei

Winter creeper H 77.78 NYS PDF    

Euphorbia cyparissias

Cypress spurge H 75.32 NYS PDF    

Euphorbia esula

Leafy spurge H 75.9 NYS PDF    

Euphorbia lathyris

Caper spurge, moleplant M 56.98 NYS PDF    

Fallopia baldschuanica

Bukhara fleeceflower, China fleece vine, silver lace vine M 50.6 NYS PDF    

Fallopia japonica (Hout.) Dcne. var. japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. xbohemica (Polygonum cuspidatum, P. sachalinense, P. xboehmicum)

Japanese knotweed, giant knotweed VH 97.94 NYS PDF    

Festuca filiformis Pourret

Hair fescue M 60.27 NYS PDF    

Frangula alnus

Glossy buckthorn, smooth buckthorn H 72.73 NYS PDF    

Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq.

Slender cottonweed M 53.25 NYS PDF    

Galega officinalis

Professor-weed, common milkpea, goat's-rue M 59.72 NYS PDF    

Galium odoratum L. Scop. (Asperula odorata L.)

Sweet bedstraw L 47.78 NYS PDF    

Glaucium flavum Crantz

Yellow hornpoppy M 65.75 NYS PDF    

Glossostigma cleistanthum (previously reported as G. diandrum)

Mudmats L 34.88 NYS PDF    

Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holb.

Tall glyceria, English watergrass, reed mannagrass H 79.52 NYS PDF    

Hedera helix

English ivy M 66 NYS PDF    

Hemerocallis fulva (L.)

Orange daylily L 46.25 NYS PDF    

Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier

Giant hogweed H 72 NYS PDF    

Hesperis matronalis

Dame’s rocket M 56.98 NYS PDF    

Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcang.

Leporinum barley; Hare barley NA   NYS PDF    

Humulus japonicus Sieb. & Zucc.

Japanese hops H 74.03 NYS PDF    

Hydrilla verticillata

Waterthyme VH 91.4 NYS PDF    

Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.

Frogbit VH 85.57 NYS PDF    

Hypericum perforatum L.

Common St. John's-wort L 46.75 NYS PDF    

Ilex crenata Thunb.

Japanese holly L 46.67 NYS PDF    

Impatiens glandulifera

Ornamental jewelweed M 66.67 NYS PDF    

Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv. (all vars. except koenigii)

Cogongrass, Cogon satin-tail H 79 NYS PDF    

Iris pseudacorus

Yellow iris H 76 NYS PDF    

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. (Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J.Scott).

Mexican summer-cypress, burning bush M 68.75 NYS PDF    

Lepidium latifolium L.

Broadleaved Pepperweed, peppergrass H 79.38 NYS PDF    

Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.

Shrub lespedeza, bicolor lespdeza, shrubby bush clover M 63.33 NYS PDF    

Lespedeza cuneata

Chinese lespedeza, Chinese bushclover H 74.44 NYS PDF    

Ligustrum amurense Caar.

Amur privet NA   NYS PDF    

Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zuccarini

Border privet H 76.67 NYS PDF    

Ligustrum ovalifolium

California privet L 44.83 NYS PDF    

Ligustrum sinense

Chinese privet NA   NYS PDF    

Ligustrum vulgare

European privet M 67.82 NYS PDF    

Lobelia chinensis Lour.

Chinese lobelia L 36.99 NYS PDF    

Lonicera japonica Thunberg

Japanese Honeysuckle VH 83.51 NYS PDF    

Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.

Amur Honeysuckle VH 84.44 NYS PDF    

Lonicera morrowii LOMO2, L. tatarica LOTA, L. xbella LOBE

Morrow's honeysuckle, Tartarian honeysuckle, Fly honeysuckle VH 85.54 NYS PDF    

Lonicera xylosteum

European Fly Honeysuckle U   NYS PDF    

Lotus corniculatus L.

Bird's-foot trefoil M 59 NYS PDF    

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz

Uruguayan Primrose-willow VH 88.3 NYS PDF    

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) Raven ssp. glabrescens (Kuntze) Raven

Floating primrose-willow VH 89.36 NYS PDF    

Lysimachia clethroides Duby Planchon

Goose-neck loosestrife NA   NYS PDF    

Lysimachia nummularia

Creeping Jenny, moneywort M 64.29 NYS PDF    

Lysimachia punctata L.

Spotted loosestrife M 57.14 NYS PDF    

Lysimachia vulgaris

Garden loosestrife, garden yellow loostrife H 72.73 NYS PDF    

Lythrum salicaria L.

Purple Loosestrife VH 91 NYS PDF    

Marsilea quadrifolia

European water-fern U   NYS PDF    

Microstegium vimineum

Japanese stiltgrass, Eulalia, Nepalese browntop VH 85 NYS PDF    

Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack.

Japanese Silver Grass NA   NYS PDF    

Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.

Chinese silvergrass, eulalia H 77.78 NYS PDF    

Morus alba

White mulberry M 68.67 NYS PDF    

Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz.

Marsh dewflower, wart-removing herb H 78.16 NYS PDF    

Myosotis scorpioides L.

True forget-me-not U   NYS PDF    

Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vellozo) Verdcourt

Parrot-feather H 76.67 NYS PDF    

Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. (including M. heterophyllum X M. pinnatum)

Broadleaf water-milfoil VH 93.62 NYS PDF    

Myriophyllum spicatum L.

Eurasian water-milfoil VH 100 NYS PDF    

Najas minor All.

Brittle water nymph M 64.84 NYS PDF    

Nasturtium officinale R. Br. ex Ait. (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (Linnaeus) Hayek, Sched.

Watercress M 65.75 NYS PDF    

Nelumbo nucifera

Sacred lotus M 64.38 NYS PDF    

Nymphoides peltata

Yellow floating heart H 74.47 NYS PDF    

Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. subsp. undulatifolius (Ard.) U. Scholz

Wavyleaf basketgrass, bristle basketgrass H 70.27 NYS PDF    

Paulownia tomentosa

Princess-tree M 51.11 NYS PDF    

Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa (Polygonum caespitosum var. longiseta)

Creeping smartweed M 60.27 NYS PDF    

Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) H. Gross (=Polygonum nepalense Meisn.)

Nepal smartweed U   NYS PDF    

Persicaria perfoliata

Mile-a-minute weed, mile-a-minute vine VH 91.11 NYS PDF    

Phalaris arundinacea

Reed canarygrass H 77.78 NYS PDF    

Phellodendron amurense

Amur corktree H 74 NYS PDF    

Phleum pratense

Timothy M 63.75 NYS PDF    

Phragmites australis ssp. Australis

Common reed VH 92 NYS PDF    

Phyllostachys aureosulcata McClure and P. aurea Carrière ex A. Rivière and C. Rivière)

Yellow groove bamboo [grove is a misspelling] and golden bamboo NA   NYS PDF    

Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino ex Breitenbach

Crowdipper, green dragon L 39.73 NYS PDF    

Pinus thunbergii

Japanese black pine M 58.62 NYS PDF    

Pistia stratiotes L.

Water lettuce NA   NYS PDF    

Poa bulbosa L.

Bulbous bluegrass L 48.75 NYS PDF    

Poa compressa L.

Canada bluegrass M 68.75 NYS PDF    

Poa pratensis L.

Kentucky bluegrass M 67.78 NYS PDF    

Populus alba

White poplar M 55.95 NYS PDF    

Potamogeton crispus L.

Curly pondweed H 79.79 NYS PDF    

Prunus avium L.

Sweet cherry M 55 NYS PDF    

Prunus cerasus L.

Sour Cherry M 55 NYS PDF    

Prunus padus L.

European bird cherry M 51.11 NYS PDF    

Pseudosasa japonica (Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.) Makino ex Nakai

Arrow bamboo NA 55.17 NYS PDF    

Pueraria montana

Kudzu VH 84.44 NYS PDF    

Pyrus calleryana

Callery pear   NYS PDF    

Ranunculus ficaria

Lesser celandine, fig buttercup   NYS PDF    

Ranunculus repens L.

Creeping Butter-cup   NYS PDF    

Rhamnus cathartica

Common buckthorn   NYS PDF    

Rhodotypos scandens

Jetbead   NYS PDF    

Robinia hispida L. (var. fertilis & hispida)

Bristly locust, mossy locust, rose acacia   NYS PDF    

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black locust   NYS PDF    

Rorippa amphibia L. Besser (Nasturtium amphibium L. W.T. Ait.)

Great yellowcress   NYS PDF    

Rosa multiflora

Multiflora rose   NYS PDF    

Rosa rugosa

Rugosa rose, Japanese rose   NYS PDF    

Rubus bifrons Vest. ex Tratt. (R. armeniacus Focke; R. discolor Weihe & Nees, R. fruticosus exclusive of its type as per USDA

Himalayan blackberry   NYS PDF    

Rubus laciniatus

Rosa rugosa   NYS PDF    

Rubus phoenicolasius

Wineberry   NYS PDF    

Rumex acetosella

Sheep sorrel   NYS PDF    

Salix atrocinerea/cinerea

Large gray willow, European gray willow   NYS PDF    

Salvinia molesta

Water fern   NYS PDF    

Saponaria officinalis L.

Bouncing-bet, bouncing betty, soapwort   NYS PDF    

Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub (S. arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dum. nom. illeg.; Festuca arundinacea Schreb. ; F. elatior L. nom. rej.; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire)

Tall Fescue, Kentucky Fescue, Reed Fescue, Coarse Fescue, Alta Fescue   NYS PDF    

Senecio jacobaea L.

Tansy-ragwort   NYS PDF    

Silphium perfoliatum L. var. perfoliatum

Cup plant   NYS PDF    

Solanum dulcamara L. var. dulcamara

Trailing nightshade, bittersweet nightshade, climbing nightshade   NYS PDF    

Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A. Braun

False spiraea   NYS PDF    

Spiraea japonica

Japanese spiraea   NYS PDF    

Stratiotes aloides L.

Water soldiers   NYS PDF    

Syringa reticulata (Blume) H.Hara[(=S. amurensis (Rupr.) Rupr.; including S. pekinensis Rupr.]

Japanese tree lilac   NYS PDF    

Tanacetum vulgare L.

Common tansy   NYS PDF    

Trapa natans L.

water chestnut, water caltrop   NYS PDF    

Tussilago farfara L.

Coltsfoot   NYS PDF    

Ulmus pumila L.

Siberian elm   NYS PDF    

Valeriana officinalis

Common valerian   NYS PDF    

Verbena bonariensis L. var. bonariensis

Purpletop vervain   NYS PDF    

Veronica beccabunga L.

European speedwell   NYS PDF    

Veronica officinalis L.

Common speedwell, gypsy-weed   NYS PDF    

Viburnum dilatatum Thunb.

Linden arrowwood   NYS PDF    

Viburnum lantana L.

Wayfaring-tree   NYS PDF    

Viburnum opulus L. var. opulus

European cranberry bush, Guelder rose   NYS PDF    

Viburnum setigerum

Tea viburnum   NYS PDF    

Viburnum sieboldii

Siebold's arrow-wood, Sielbold's viburnum   NYS PDF    

Vicia cracca L. s.l. (includes: Vicia cracca L. subsp. cracca, V. cracca subsp tenuifolia (Roth) Gaudin, V. villosa subsp pseudocracca (Bertol.) Ball, V. villosa var. varia (Host) Corb., V. villosa Roth var. villosa)

Bird vetch, cow vetch, winter vetch, bramble vetch, tufted vetch, shaggy vetch   NYS PDF    

Vinca minor

Common periwinkle   NYS PDF    

Vitex rotundifolia L.F.

Roundleaf chastetree, beach vitex, chasteberry, monk's pepper   NYS PDF    

Wisteria sinensis/W. floribunda

Chinese wisteria/Japanese wisteria   NYS PDF