Non-Native Plant Species Invasiveness Assessment

In 2008, The Nature Conservancy (TNC) in New York and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) developed a system and protocol designed to assess the invasive nature of non-native plant species. The New York State Invasive Species Council, in consultation with the Invasive Species Advisory Committee, adopted the ranking system for use statewide. In addition, results of this work have informed invasive species legislation in Nassau and Suffolk Counties.

Consequences to the native species and natural ecosystems of New York are the focus of the ranking system. The ranking system is designed to be repeatable, based on the best available science, clearly explained, and fully documented. The system can be used to assess non-native plant species that are established in New York State, species that are new arrivals, as well as species that are not yet present. Additional information about the system can be found in "New York State Plant Ranking System for Evaluating Non-Native Plant Species for Invasiveness".

Species are assessed at a statewide level using the New York State assessment form. Questions are organized into four broad categories:

  1. ecological impact
  2. biological characteristic and dispersal ability
  3. ecological amplitude and distribution
  4. difficulty of control

In order to better inform local efforts, species can be further assessed using the Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management (PRISM) form.

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden plans to assess a total of 180 species in 2008-2009. Species assessments are reviewed, edited, and approved by a committee of stakeholders designated as the Scientific Review Committee (SRC). Voting members of the SRC include scientists, nursery professionals, Cornell Cooperative Extension and land managers at the County, State and Federal levels. A supplemental review is conducted by qualified specialists throughout the State prior to submission to the Advisory Committee and Council for final approval. As assessment forms are completed and approved, they will be posted on this website.

Click here for Invasiveness Assessment Scores and Ranks for 183 Nonnative Plan Species in NYS - as of March 2013

The NYS Department of Environmental Conservation has published draft invasive species regulations for public comment. The associated documents are available on the Department's Lands and Forests Emergency, Proposed & Recently Adopted Regulations web page at:

New York State Plant Species Assessments

Scientific Name Common Name Ecological Rank Score NYS Profile Map

Acer ginnala

Amur maple M 66.22 NYS PDF    

Acer palmatum Thunb.

Japanese maple M 50 NYS PDF    

Acer platanoides

Norway maple VH 82 NYS PDF    

Acer pseudoplatanus

Sycamore maple H 71.11 NYS PDF    

Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai (syn. Achyranthes bidentata var. japonica Miq.)

Japanese Chaff Flower H 71.08 NYS PDF    

Aegopodium podagraria

Bishop's goutweed M 63.75 NYS PDF    

Agrostis gigantea Roth (Agrostis alba auct. non L.; Agrostis gigantea Roth var. dispar (Michx.) Philipson; Agrostis nigra With.; Agrostis stolonifera L. ssp. gigantea (Roth) Schuebl. & Martens; Agrostis stolonifera L. var. major (Gaudin) Farw.)

Redtop, black bentgrass M 67.5 NYS PDF    

Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle

Tree of heaven M 68 NYS PDF    

Akebia quinata

Chocolate vine M 52.38 NYS PDF    

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

Silktree, mimosa L 40 NYS PDF    

Alliaria petiolata

Garlic mustard VH 84 NYS PDF    

Alnus glutinosa

European alder, black alder M 64.44 NYS PDF    

Amelopsis brevipedunculata

Porcelain berry H 71.26 NYS PDF    

Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm.

Wild chervil H 78.75 NYS PDF    

Aralia elata

Japanese angelica tree VH 80.46 NYS PDF    

Artemesia vulgaris L.

Common wormwood, Mugwort H 79.31 NYS PDF    

Arthraxon hispidus

Small carpgrass H 75.68 NYS PDF    

Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl. (including ssp. giantea and ssp. tecta (Walter) McClure [=A. tecta (Walter) Muhl.])

Bamboo, canebreak, giant cane NA 59.74 NYS PDF    

Berberis thunbergii (incl. B. ottowensis)

Japanese barberry VH 91 NYS PDF    

Berberis vulgaris

Common barberry M 68.75 NYS PDF    

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. ssp. sylvaticum

Slender falsebrome VH 86.6 NYS PDF    

Bromus tectorum L.

Cheat grass, downy brome M 50 NYS PDF    

Buddleja davidii Franch.

Orange-eye butterfly bush   NYS PDF    

Butomus umbellatus L.

flowering-rush   NYS PDF    

Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray, Ann

Carolina fanwort   NYS PDF    

Callitriche stagnalis Scop.

Pond water-starwort   NYS PDF    

Caragana arborescens Lam.

Siberian peashrub   NYS PDF    

Cardamine impatiens L.

Narrowleaf bittercress   NYS PDF    

Carex kobomugi/C. macrocephala

Japanese sedge/largehead sedge   NYS PDF    

Caulerpa taxifolia

Killer alga   NYS PDF    

Celastrus orbiculatus

Oriental bittersweet   NYS PDF    

Centaurea jacea s.l. (including C. nigra, C. nigrescens, C. xmoncktonii)

Black knapweed, black star-thistle, brown knapweed, brown ray knapweed, brown star-thistle, lesser knapweed, meadow knapweed, protean knapweed, short-fringed knapweed, short-fringed star-thistle, tyrol knapweed, vochin knapweed   NYS PDF    

Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos s.l. (including C. biebersteinii, C. diffusa, C. maculosa misapplied, C. xpsammogena)

Spotted knapweed, spotted star-thistle   NYS PDF    

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (C. setosum, C. incanum, Carduus arvensis, Serratula arvensis & all varieties of C. arvense)

Creeping thistle, Californian thistle, Canada thistle, field thistle   NYS PDF    

Cirsium palustre (L.) Scop (Carduus palustris)

Marsh thistle, European swamp thistle   NYS PDF    

Clematis terniflora

Japanese virgin's-bower   NYS PDF    

Coronilla varia (Securigera varia)

Crownvetch   NYS PDF    

Cynanchum louiseae

Black swallow-wort   NYS PDF    

Cynanchum rossicum

European swallow-wort   NYS PDF    

Cyperus difformis L.

Variable flatsedge   NYS PDF    

Datura stramonium L.

Jimsonweed, common thorn apple, Jamestown weed, purple thorn apple   NYS PDF    

Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

Grecian foxglove   NYS PDF    

Digitalis purpurea L

Purple foxglove   NYS PDF    

Dioscorea polystachya (D. oppositifolia L. misapplied)

Chinese yam, Cinnamon vine   NYS PDF    

Dipsacus laciniatus L.

Cut-leaf teasel   NYS PDF    

Egeria densa Planchon

Brazilian waterweed   NYS PDF    

Eichhornia crassipes

Common water-hyacinth   NYS PDF    

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Russian olive   NYS PDF    

Elaeagnus umbellata

Autumn olive   NYS PDF    

Eleutherococcus pentaphyllus (Siebold & Zucc.) Nakai (Synonyms: Eleutherococcus seiboldianus (Makino) Koidzumi;
Acanthopanax sieboldianus Makino)

Five-leaved Aralia   NYS PDF    

Epilobium hirsutum L.

Great hairy willow-herb   NYS PDF    

Eragrostis curvula

Weeping lovegrass   NYS PDF    

Euonymus alatus

Winged burning bush   NYS PDF    

Euonymus europaeus L.

European spindletree   NYS PDF    

Euonymus fortunei

Winter creeper   NYS PDF    

Euphorbia cyparissias

Cypress spurge   NYS PDF    

Euphorbia esula

Leafy spurge   NYS PDF    

Euphorbia lathyris

Caper spurge, moleplant   NYS PDF    

Fallopia baldschuanica

Bukhara fleeceflower   NYS PDF    

Fallopia japonica (Hout.) Dcne. var. japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. xbohemica (Polygonum cuspidatum, P. sachalinense, P. xboehmicum)

Japanese knotweed, giant knotweed   NYS PDF    

Festuca filiformis Pourret

Hair fescue   NYS PDF    

Frangula alnus

Glossy buckthorn   NYS PDF    

Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq.

Slender cottonweed   NYS PDF    

Galega officinalis

Professor-weed, common milkpea, goat's-rue   NYS PDF    

Galium odoratum L. Scop. (Asperula odorata L.)

Sweet bedstraw   NYS PDF    

Glaucium flavum

Yellow hornpoppy   NYS PDF    

Glossostigma cleistanthum (previously reported as G. diandrum)

Mudmats   NYS PDF    

Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holb.

Tall glyceria, English watergrass, reed mannagrass   NYS PDF    

Hedera helix

English ivy   NYS PDF    

Hemerocallis fulva

Orange daylily   NYS PDF    

Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier

Giant hogweed   NYS PDF    

Hesperis matronalis

Dame’s rocket   NYS PDF    

Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcang.

Leporinum barley; Hare barley   NYS PDF    

Humulus japonicus Sieb. & Zucc.

Japanese hops   NYS PDF    

Hydrilla verticillata

Waterthyme   NYS PDF    

Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.

Frogbit   NYS PDF    

Hypericum perforatum L.

Common St. John's-wort   NYS PDF    

Ilex crenata Thunb.

Japanese holly   NYS PDF    

Impatiens glandulifera

Ornamental jewelweed   NYS PDF    

Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv. (all vars. except koenigii)

Cogongrass, Cogon satin-tail   NYS PDF    

Iris pseudacorus

Yellow iris   NYS PDF    

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. (Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J.Scott).

Mexican summer-cypress, burning bush   NYS PDF    

Lepidium latifolium L.

Broadleaved Pepperweed   NYS PDF    

Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.

Shrub lespedeza, bicolor lespdeza   NYS PDF    

Lespedeza cuneata

Chinese bushclover   NYS PDF    

Ligustrum amurense

Amur privet   NYS PDF    

Ligustrum obtusifolium

Border privet   NYS PDF    

Ligustrum ovalifolium

California privet   NYS PDF    

Ligustrum sinense

Chinese privet   NYS PDF    

Ligustrum vulgare

European privet   NYS PDF    

Lobelia chinensis Lour.

Chinese lobelia   NYS PDF    

Lonicera japonica Thunberg

Japanese Honeysuckle   NYS PDF    

Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.

Amur Honeysuckle   NYS PDF    

Lonicera morrowii LOMO2, L. tatarica LOTA, L. xbella LOBE

Morrow's honeysuckle, Tartarian honeysuckle, Fly honeysuckle   NYS PDF    

Lonicera xylosteum

European Fly Honeysuckle   NYS PDF    

Lotus corniculatus L.

Bird's-foot trefoil   NYS PDF    

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz

Uruguayan Primrose-willow   NYS PDF    

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) Raven ssp. glabrescens (Kuntze) Raven

Floating primrose-willow   NYS PDF    

Lysimachia clethroides Duby Planchon

Goose-neck loosestrife   NYS PDF    

Lysimachia nummularia

Creeping Jenny   NYS PDF    

Lysimachia punctata L.

Spotted loosestrife   NYS PDF    

Lysimachia vulgaris

Garden loosestrife, garden yellow loostrife   NYS PDF    

Lythrum salicaria L.

Purple Loosestrife   NYS PDF    

Marsilea quadrifolia

European water-fern   NYS PDF    

Microstegium vimineum

Japanese stiltgrass, Eulalia, Nepalese browntop   NYS PDF    

Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack.

Japanese Silver Grass   NYS PDF    

Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.

Chinese silvergrass   NYS PDF    

Morus alba

White mulberry   NYS PDF    

Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz.

Marsh dewflower, wart-removing herb   NYS PDF    

Myosotis scorpioides L.

True forget-me-not   NYS PDF    

Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vellozo) Verdcourt

Parrot-feather   NYS PDF    

Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. (including M. heterophyllum X M. pinnatum)

Broadleaf water-milfoil   NYS PDF    

Myriophyllum spicatum L.

Eurasian water-milfoil   NYS PDF    

Najas minor All.

Brittle water nymph   NYS PDF    

Nasturtium officinale R. Br. ex Ait. (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (Linnaeus) Hayek, Sched.

Watercress   NYS PDF    

Nelumbo nucifera

Sacred lotus   NYS PDF    

Nymphoides peltata

Yellow floating heart   NYS PDF    

Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. subsp. undulatifolius (Ard.) U. Scholz

Wavyleaf basketgrass, bristle basketgrass   NYS PDF    

Paulownia tomentosa

Princess-tree   NYS PDF    

Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa (Polygonum caespitosum var. longiseta)

Creeping smartweed   NYS PDF    

Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) H. Gross (=Polygonum nepalense Meisn.)

Nepal smartweed   NYS PDF    

Persicaria perfoliata

Mile-a-minute weed, mile-a-minute vine   NYS PDF    

Phalaris arundinacea

Reed canarygrass   NYS PDF    

Phellodendron amurense

Amur corktree   NYS PDF    

Phleum pratense

Timothy   NYS PDF    

Phragmites australis ssp. Australis

Common reed   NYS PDF    

Phyllostachys aureosulcata McClure and P. aurea Carrière ex A. Rivière and C. Rivière)

Yellow groove bamboo [grove is a misspelling] and golden bamboo   NYS PDF    

Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino ex Breitenbach

Crowdipper, green dragon   NYS PDF    

Pinus thunbergii

Japanese black pine   NYS PDF    

Pistia stratiotes L.

Water lettuce   NYS PDF    

Poa bulbosa L.

Bulbous bluegrass   NYS PDF    

Poa compressa L.

Canada bluegrass   NYS PDF    

Poa pratensis L.

Kentucky bluegrass   NYS PDF    

Populus alba

White poplar   NYS PDF    

Potamogeton crispus L.

Curly pondweed   NYS PDF    

Prunus avium L.

Sweet cherry   NYS PDF    

Prunus cerasus L.

Sour Cherry   NYS PDF    

Prunus padus L.

European bird cherry   NYS PDF    

Pseudosasa japonica (Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.) Makino ex Nakai

Arrow bamboo   NYS PDF    

Pueraria montana

Kudzu   NYS PDF    

Pyrus calleryana

Callery pear   NYS PDF    

Ranunculus ficaria

Lesser celandine, fig buttercup   NYS PDF    

Ranunculus repens L.

Creeping Butter-cup   NYS PDF    

Rhamnus cathartica

Common buckthorn   NYS PDF    

Rhodotypos scandens

Jetbead   NYS PDF    

Robinia hispida L. (var. fertilis & hispida)

Bristly locust, mossy locust, rose acacia   NYS PDF    

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black locust   NYS PDF    

Rorippa amphibia L. Besser (Nasturtium amphibium L. W.T. Ait.)

Great yellowcress   NYS PDF    

Rosa multiflora

Multiflora rose   NYS PDF    

Rosa rugosa

Rugosa rose, Japanese rose   NYS PDF    

Rubus bifrons Vest. ex Tratt. (R. armeniacus Focke; R. discolor Weihe & Nees, R. fruticosus exclusive of its type as per USDA

Himalayan blackberry   NYS PDF    

Rubus laciniatus

Rosa rugosa   NYS PDF    

Rubus phoenicolasius

Wineberry   NYS PDF    

Rumex acetosella

Sheep sorrel   NYS PDF    

Salix atrocinerea/cinerea

Large gray willow, European gray willow   NYS PDF    

Salvinia molesta

Water fern   NYS PDF    

Saponaria officinalis L.

Bouncing-bet, bouncing betty, soapwort   NYS PDF    

Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub (S. arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dum. nom. illeg.; Festuca arundinacea Schreb. ; F. elatior L. nom. rej.; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire)

Tall Fescue, Kentucky Fescue, Reed Fescue, Coarse Fescue, Alta Fescue   NYS PDF    

Senecio jacobaea L.

Tansy-ragwort   NYS PDF    

Silphium perfoliatum L. var. perfoliatum

Cup plant   NYS PDF    

Solanum dulcamara L. var. dulcamara

Trailing nightshade, bittersweet nightshade, climbing nightshade   NYS PDF    

Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A. Braun

False spiraea   NYS PDF    

Spiraea japonica

Japanese spiraea   NYS PDF    

Stratiotes aloides L.

Water soldiers   NYS PDF    

Syringa reticulata (Blume) H.Hara[(=S. amurensis (Rupr.) Rupr.; including S. pekinensis Rupr.]

Japanese tree lilac   NYS PDF    

Tanacetum vulgare L.

Common tansy   NYS PDF    

Trapa natans L.

water chestnut, water caltrop   NYS PDF    

Tussilago farfara L.

Coltsfoot   NYS PDF    

Ulmus pumila L.

Siberian elm   NYS PDF    

Valeriana officinalis

Common valerian   NYS PDF    

Verbena bonariensis L. var. bonariensis

Purpletop vervain   NYS PDF    

Veronica beccabunga L.

European speedwell   NYS PDF    

Veronica officinalis L.

Common speedwell, gypsy-weed   NYS PDF    

Viburnum dilatatum Thunb.

Linden arrowwood   NYS PDF    

Viburnum lantana L.

Wayfaring-tree   NYS PDF    

Viburnum opulus L. var. opulus

European cranberry bush, Guelder rose   NYS PDF    

Viburnum setigerum

Tea viburnum   NYS PDF    

Viburnum sieboldii

Siebold's arrow-wood, Sielbold's viburnum   NYS PDF    

Vicia cracca L. s.l. (includes: Vicia cracca L. subsp. cracca, V. cracca subsp tenuifolia (Roth) Gaudin, V. villosa subsp pseudocracca (Bertol.) Ball, V. villosa var. varia (Host) Corb., V. villosa Roth var. villosa)

Bird vetch, cow vetch, winter vetch, bramble vetch, tufted vetch, shaggy vetch   NYS PDF    

Vinca minor

Common periwinkle   NYS PDF    

Vitex rotundifolia L.F.

Roundleaf chastetree, beach vitex, chasteberry, monk's pepper   NYS PDF    

Wisteria sinensis/W. floribunda

Chinese wisteria/Japanese wisteria   NYS PDF