Non-Native Plant Species Invasiveness Assessment

In 2008, The Nature Conservancy (TNC) in New York and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) developed a system and protocol designed to assess the invasive nature of non-native plant species. The New York State Invasive Species Council, in consultation with the Invasive Species Advisory Committee, adopted the ranking system for use statewide. In addition, results of this work have informed invasive species legislation in Nassau and Suffolk Counties.

Consequences to the native species and natural ecosystems of New York are the focus of the ranking system. The ranking system is designed to be repeatable, based on the best available science, clearly explained, and fully documented. The system can be used to assess non-native plant species that are established in New York State, species that are new arrivals, as well as species that are not yet present. Additional information about the system can be found in "New York State Plant Ranking System for Evaluating Non-Native Plant Species for Invasiveness".

Species are assessed at a statewide level using the New York State assessment form. Questions are organized into four broad categories:

  1. ecological impact
  2. biological characteristic and dispersal ability
  3. ecological amplitude and distribution
  4. difficulty of control


In order to better inform local efforts, species can be further assessed using the Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management (PRISM) form.

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden plans to assess a total of 180 species in 2008-2009. Species assessments are reviewed, edited, and approved by a committee of stakeholders designated as the Scientific Review Committee (SRC). Voting members of the SRC include scientists, nursery professionals, Cornell Cooperative Extension and land managers at the County, State and Federal levels. A supplemental review is conducted by qualified specialists throughout the State prior to submission to the Advisory Committee and Council for final approval. As assessment forms are completed and approved, they will be posted on this website.

Click here for Invasiveness Assessment Scores and Ranks for 183 Nonnative Plan Species in NYS - as of March 2013


New York State Species Assessments

Scientific Name Common Name NYS Profile

Acer ginnala

Amur maple NYS PDF  

Acer palmatum Thunb.

Japanese maple NYS PDF  

Acer platanoides

Norway maple NYS PDF  

Acer pseudoplatanus

Sycamore maple NYS PDF  

Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai (syn. Achyranthes bidentata var. japonica Miq.)

Japanese Chaff Flower NYS PDF  

Aegopodium podagraria

Bishop's goutweed NYS PDF  

Agrostis gigantea Roth (Agrostis alba auct. non L.; Agrostis gigantea Roth var. dispar (Michx.) Philipson; Agrostis nigra With.; Agrostis stolonifera L. ssp. gigantea (Roth) Schuebl. & Martens; Agrostis stolonifera L. var. major (Gaudin) Farw.)

Redtop, black bentgrass NYS PDF  

Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle

Tree of heaven NYS PDF  

Akebia quinata

Chocolate vine NYS PDF  

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

Silktree, mimosa NYS PDF  

Alliaria petiolata

Garlic mustard NYS PDF  

Alnus glutinosa

European alder, black alder NYS PDF  

Amelopsis brevipedunculata

Porcelain berry NYS PDF  

Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm.

Wild chervil NYS PDF  

Aralia elata

Japanese angelica tree NYS PDF  

Artemesia vulgaris L.

Common wormwood, Mugwort NYS PDF  

Arthraxon hispidus

Small carpgrass NYS PDF  

Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl. (including ssp. giantea and ssp. tecta (Walter) McClure [=A. tecta (Walter) Muhl.])

Bamboo, canebreak, giant cane NYS PDF  

Berberis thunbergii (incl. B. ottowensis)

Japanese barberry NYS PDF  

Berberis vulgaris

Common barberry NYS PDF  

Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. ssp. sylvaticum

Slender falsebrome NYS PDF  

Bromus tectorum L.

Cheat grass, downy brome NYS PDF  

Buddleja davidii Franch.

Orange-eye butterfly bush NYS PDF  

Butomus umbellatus L.

flowering-rush NYS PDF  

Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray, Ann

Carolina fanwort NYS PDF  

Callitriche stagnalis Scop.

Pond water-starwort NYS PDF  

Caragana arborescens Lam.

Siberian peashrub NYS PDF  

Cardamine impatiens L.

Narrowleaf bittercress NYS PDF  

Carex kobomugi/C. macrocephala

Japanese sedge/largehead sedge NYS PDF  

Caulerpa taxifolia

Killer alga NYS PDF  

Celastrus orbiculatus

Oriental bittersweet NYS PDF  

Centaurea jacea s.l. (including C. nigra, C. nigrescens, C. xmoncktonii)

Black knapweed, black star-thistle, brown knapweed, brown ray knapweed, brown star-thistle, lesser knapweed, meadow knapweed, protean knapweed, short-fringed knapweed, short-fringed star-thistle, tyrol knapweed, vochin knapweed NYS PDF  

Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos s.l. (including C. biebersteinii, C. diffusa, C. maculosa misapplied, C. xpsammogena)

Spotted knapweed, spotted star-thistle NYS PDF  

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (C. setosum, C. incanum, Carduus arvensis, Serratula arvensis & all varieties of C. arvense)

Creeping thistle, Californian thistle, Canada thistle, field thistle NYS PDF  

Cirsium palustre (L.) Scop (Carduus palustris)

Marsh thistle, European swamp thistle NYS PDF  

Clematis terniflora

Japanese virgin's-bower NYS PDF  

Coronilla varia (Securigera varia)

Crownvetch NYS PDF  

Cynanchum louiseae

Black swallow-wort NYS PDF  

Cynanchum rossicum

European swallow-wort NYS PDF  

Cyperus difformis L.

Variable flatsedge NYS PDF  

Datura stramonium L.

Jimsonweed, common thorn apple, Jamestown weed, purple thorn apple NYS PDF  

Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

Grecian foxglove NYS PDF  

Digitalis purpurea L

Purple foxglove NYS PDF  

Dioscorea polystachya (D. oppositifolia L. misapplied)

Chinese yam, Cinnamon vine NYS PDF  

Dipsacus laciniatus L.

Cut-leaf teasel NYS PDF  

Egeria densa Planchon

Brazilian waterweed NYS PDF  

Eichhornia crassipes

Common water-hyacinth NYS PDF  

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Russian olive NYS PDF  

Elaeagnus umbellata

Autumn olive NYS PDF  

Eleutherococcus pentaphyllus (Siebold & Zucc.) Nakai (Synonyms: Eleutherococcus seiboldianus (Makino) Koidzumi;
Acanthopanax sieboldianus Makino)

Five-leaved Aralia NYS PDF  

Epilobium hirsutum L.

Great hairy willow-herb, codlins & cream NYS PDF  

Eragrostis curvula

Weeping lovegrass NYS PDF  

Euonymus alatus

Winged burning bush, winged euonymus NYS PDF  

Euonymus europaeus L.

European spindletree NYS PDF  

Euonymus fortunei

Winter creeper NYS PDF  

Euphorbia cyparissias

Cypress spurge NYS PDF  

Euphorbia esula

Leafy spurge NYS PDF  

Euphorbia lathyris

Caper spurge, moleplant NYS PDF  

Fallopia baldschuanica

Bukhara fleeceflower, China fleece vine, silver lace vine NYS PDF  

Fallopia japonica (Hout.) Dcne. var. japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. xbohemica (Polygonum cuspidatum, P. sachalinense, P. xboehmicum)

Japanese knotweed, giant knotweed NYS PDF  

Festuca filiformis Pourret

Hair fescue NYS PDF  

Frangula alnus

Glossy buckthorn, smooth buckthorn NYS PDF  

Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq.

Slender cottonweed NYS PDF  

Galega officinalis

Professor-weed, common milkpea, goat's-rue NYS PDF  

Galium odoratum L. Scop. (Asperula odorata L.)

Sweet bedstraw NYS PDF  

Glaucium flavum Crantz

Yellow hornpoppy NYS PDF  

Glossostigma cleistanthum (previously reported as G. diandrum)

Mudmats NYS PDF  

Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holb.

Tall glyceria, English watergrass, reed mannagrass NYS PDF  

Hedera helix

English ivy NYS PDF  

Hemerocallis fulva (L.)

Orange daylily NYS PDF  

Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier

Giant hogweed NYS PDF  

Hesperis matronalis

Dame’s rocket NYS PDF  

Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcang.

Leporinum barley; Hare barley NYS PDF  

Humulus japonicus Sieb. & Zucc.

Japanese hops NYS PDF  

Hydrilla verticillata

Waterthyme NYS PDF  

Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.

Frogbit NYS PDF  

Hypericum perforatum L.

Common St. John's-wort NYS PDF  

Ilex crenata Thunb.

Japanese holly NYS PDF  

Impatiens glandulifera

Ornamental jewelweed NYS PDF  

Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv. (all vars. except koenigii)

Cogongrass, Cogon satin-tail NYS PDF  

Iris pseudacorus

Yellow iris NYS PDF  

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. (Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J.Scott).

Mexican summer-cypress, burning bush NYS PDF  

Lepidium latifolium L.

Broadleaved Pepperweed, peppergrass NYS PDF  

Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.

Shrub lespedeza, bicolor lespdeza, shrubby bush clover NYS PDF  

Lespedeza cuneata

Chinese lespedeza, Chinese bushclover NYS PDF  

Ligustrum amurense Caar.

Amur privet NYS PDF  

Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zuccarini

Border privet NYS PDF  

Ligustrum ovalifolium

California privet NYS PDF  

Ligustrum sinense

Chinese privet NYS PDF  

Ligustrum vulgare

European privet NYS PDF  

Lobelia chinensis Lour.

Chinese lobelia NYS PDF  

Lonicera japonica Thunberg

Japanese Honeysuckle NYS PDF  

Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Maxim.

Amur Honeysuckle NYS PDF  

Lonicera morrowii LOMO2, L. tatarica LOTA, L. xbella LOBE

Morrow's honeysuckle, Tartarian honeysuckle, Fly honeysuckle NYS PDF  

Lonicera xylosteum

European Fly Honeysuckle NYS PDF  

Lotus corniculatus L.

Bird's-foot trefoil NYS PDF  

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz

Uruguayan Primrose-willow NYS PDF  

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) Raven ssp. glabrescens (Kuntze) Raven

Floating primrose-willow NYS PDF  

Lysimachia clethroides Duby Planchon

Goose-neck loosestrife NYS PDF  

Lysimachia nummularia

Creeping Jenny, moneywort NYS PDF  

Lysimachia punctata L.

Spotted loosestrife NYS PDF  

Lysimachia vulgaris

Garden loosestrife, garden yellow loostrife NYS PDF  

Lythrum salicaria L.

Purple Loosestrife NYS PDF  

Marsilea quadrifolia

European water-fern NYS PDF  

Microstegium vimineum

Japanese stiltgrass, Eulalia, Nepalese browntop NYS PDF  

Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack.

Japanese Silver Grass NYS PDF  

Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.

Chinese silvergrass, eulalia NYS PDF  

Morus alba

White mulberry NYS PDF  

Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz.

Marsh dewflower, wart-removing herb NYS PDF  

Myosotis scorpioides L.

True forget-me-not NYS PDF  

Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vellozo) Verdcourt

Parrot-feather NYS PDF  

Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. (including M. heterophyllum X M. pinnatum)

Broadleaf water-milfoil NYS PDF  

Myriophyllum spicatum L.

Eurasian water-milfoil NYS PDF  

Najas minor All.

Brittle water nymph NYS PDF  

Nasturtium officinale R. Br. ex Ait. (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (Linnaeus) Hayek, Sched.

Watercress NYS PDF  

Nelumbo nucifera

Sacred lotus NYS PDF  

Nymphoides peltata

Yellow floating heart NYS PDF  

Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. subsp. undulatifolius (Ard.) U. Scholz

Wavyleaf basketgrass, bristle basketgrass NYS PDF  

Paulownia tomentosa

Princess-tree NYS PDF  

Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa (Polygonum caespitosum var. longiseta)

Creeping smartweed NYS PDF  

Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) H. Gross (=Polygonum nepalense Meisn.)

Nepal smartweed NYS PDF  

Persicaria perfoliata

Mile-a-minute weed, mile-a-minute vine NYS PDF  

Phalaris arundinacea

Reed canarygrass NYS PDF  

Phellodendron amurense

Amur corktree NYS PDF  

Phleum pratense

Timothy NYS PDF  

Phragmites australis ssp. Australis

Common reed NYS PDF  

Phyllostachys aureosulcata McClure and P. aurea Carrière ex A. Rivière and C. Rivière)

Yellow groove bamboo [grove is a misspelling] and golden bamboo NYS PDF  

Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino ex Breitenbach

Crowdipper, green dragon NYS PDF  

Pinus thunbergii

Japanese black pine NYS PDF  

Pistia stratiotes L.

Water lettuce NYS PDF  

Poa bulbosa L.

Bulbous bluegrass NYS PDF  

Poa compressa L.

Canada bluegrass NYS PDF  

Poa pratensis L.

Kentucky bluegrass NYS PDF  

Populus alba

White poplar NYS PDF  

Potamogeton crispus L.

Curly pondweed NYS PDF  

Prunus avium L.

Sweet cherry NYS PDF  

Prunus cerasus L.

Sour Cherry NYS PDF  

Prunus padus L.

European bird cherry NYS PDF  

Pseudosasa japonica (Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.) Makino ex Nakai

Arrow bamboo NYS PDF  

Pueraria montana

Kudzu NYS PDF  

Pyrus calleryana

Callery pear NYS PDF  

Ranunculus ficaria

Lesser celandine, fig buttercup NYS PDF  

Ranunculus repens L.

Creeping Butter-cup NYS PDF  

Rhamnus cathartica

Common buckthorn NYS PDF  

Rhodotypos scandens

Jetbead NYS PDF  

Robinia hispida L. (var. fertilis & hispida)

Bristly locust, mossy locust, rose acacia NYS PDF  

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black locust NYS PDF  

Rorippa amphibia L. Besser (Nasturtium amphibium L. W.T. Ait.)

Great yellowcress, water yellowcress NYS PDF  

Rosa multiflora

Multiflora rose NYS PDF  

Rosa rugosa

Rugosa rose, Japanese rose, beach rose NYS PDF  

Rubus bifrons Vest. ex Tratt. (R. armeniacus Focke; R. discolor Weihe & Nees, R. fruticosus exclusive of its type as per USDA

Himalayan blackberry NYS PDF  

Rubus laciniatus

Cutleaf Evergreen Blackberry, Evergreen blackberry NYS PDF  

Rubus phoenicolasius

Wineberry NYS PDF  

Rumex acetosella

Sheep sorrel NYS PDF  

Salix atrocinerea/cinerea

Large gray willow, European gray willow, Gray florist's willow NYS PDF  

Salvinia molesta

Water fern NYS PDF  

Saponaria officinalis L.

Bouncing-bet, bouncing betty, soapwort NYS PDF  

Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub (S. arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dum. nom. illeg.; Festuca arundinacea Schreb. ; F. elatior L. nom. rej.; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire)

Tall Fescue, Kentucky Fescue, Reed Fescue, Coarse Fescue, Alta Fescue NYS PDF  

Senecio jacobaea L.

Tansy-ragwort NYS PDF  

Silphium perfoliatum L. var. perfoliatum

Cup plant NYS PDF  

Solanum dulcamara L. var. dulcamara

Trailing nightshade, bittersweet nightshade, climbing nightshade NYS PDF  

Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A. Braun

False spiraea NYS PDF  

Spiraea japonica

Japanese spiraea NYS PDF  

Stratiotes aloides L.

Water soldiers NYS PDF  

Syringa reticulata (Blume) H.Hara[(=S. amurensis (Rupr.) Rupr.; including S. pekinensis Rupr.]

Japanese tree lilac NYS PDF  

Tanacetum vulgare L.

Common tansy NYS PDF  

Trapa natans L.

water chestnut, water caltrop NYS PDF  

Tussilago farfara L.

Coltsfoot NYS PDF  

Ulmus pumila L.

Siberian elm NYS PDF  

Valeriana officinalis

Common valerian NYS PDF  

Verbena bonariensis L. var. bonariensis

Purpletop vervain NYS PDF  

Veronica beccabunga L.

European speedwell NYS PDF  

Veronica officinalis L.

Common speedwell, gypsy-weed NYS PDF  

Viburnum dilatatum Thunb.

Linden arrowwood NYS PDF  

Viburnum lantana L.

Wayfaring-tree NYS PDF  

Viburnum opulus L. var. opulus

European cranberry bush, Guelder rose NYS PDF  

Viburnum setigerum

Tea viburnum NYS PDF  

Viburnum sieboldii

Siebold's arrow-wood, Sielbold's viburnum NYS PDF  

Vicia cracca L. s.l. (includes: Vicia cracca L. subsp. cracca, V. cracca subsp tenuifolia (Roth) Gaudin, V. villosa subsp pseudocracca (Bertol.) Ball, V. villosa var. varia (Host) Corb., V. villosa Roth var. villosa)

Bird vetch, cow vetch, winter vetch, bramble vetch, tufted vetch, shaggy vetch NYS PDF  

Vinca minor

Common periwinkle NYS PDF  

Vitex rotundifolia L.F.

Roundleaf chastetree, beach vitex, chasteberry, monk's pepper NYS PDF  

Wisteria sinensis/W. floribunda

Chinese wisteria/Japanese wisteria NYS PDF