Bugs & Blights
Agricultural Invasive Species

Why Should You Care?


 

 

 

 

 



Resources

Bugs & Blights Poster

Bugs & Blights Brochure

Agricultural Weeds Poster

Agricultural Weeds Brochure

Giant Hogweed ID Brochure

CCE ISP Prevention Efforts: Education and Public Awareness flyer

NYS Department of Ag & Markets Warehouse Poster

 



Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)

Mark Whitmore, Cornell Cooperative Extension

Commodity:

Hemlock trees

First sighting:

Suffolk Co. (1950)

Impacts:

  • Feeds at base needles, eventually depleting the resources in the tree, ultimately leading to loss of branches and death of tree
  • Hemlock wood is commonly used in barns and on-farm building projects
  • Groves of hemlock provide habitat and cover for popular game species including deer, ruffed grouse, turkey, rabbit, and snowshoe hare
  • Loss of hemlock groves can result in loss of cool, damp and shaded microclimate that supports unique terrestrial plant communities
  • Loss of hemlock groves can result in warmer stream water temperatures for fish and stream salamanders, harming those species
  • Declines in hemlock can result in losses of unique plant and animal assemblages and drastic changes to ecosystem processes




Species:

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

Photo credit: David Cappeart, Michigan State University

Commodity:

Black ash (Fraxinus nigra), Green ash (F. pennsylvanica), and White ash (F. americana).

First sighting:

Cattaraugus Co. (2009)

Impacts:

  • Larvae feed on phloem of ash trees girdling and killing trees as infestations increase
  • Dead ash trees decay quickly, becoming public safety issues
  • Ash trees are valuable commercially, used for the manufacture of flooring, furniture, and shipping pallets, as well as the all-American baseball bat
  • 114 million board feet of ash lumber is grown annually in eastern U.S.: value = about $25 billion.
  • Hedgerows comprised of ash trees help protect fields from drying and eroding from winds
  • Ash hedgerows provide shelter to plants, animals and humans




Species:

Alfalfa snout beetle (Otiorhynchus ligustici)

Photo credit: Gyorgy Csoka, Hungary Forest Research Institute, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Alfalfa and clover

First sighting:

Oswego Co. (1896)

Impacts:

  • Can destroy entire fields of alfalfa
  • Larvae feed on the taproot while the adults consume the leaves killing most plants
  • Makes growing alfalfa or clover very expensive




Species:

Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Photo credit: Kenneth R. Law, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Sugar maple, horsechestnut, poplars, willow, birch, ash and other hardwood trees species

First sighting:

Queens Co. (1996)

Impacts:

  • Larvae feed on the wood of maple, horsechestnut, poplars, willow, birch, ash and many other hardwood tree species causing tree mortality.
  • Could affect NY’s 1500+ maple syrup producers who make $13 million of maple syrup each year
  • Sugar maple lumber is commonly used for flooring, cabinets and furniture
  • Infested hardwood must be completed destroyed to prevent spread of the insect




Species:

Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)

Photo credit: David R. Lance, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Late peaches, apples, tomatoes, soy beans, sweet corn, berries, apricots, grapes, cherries, nectarines, field and sweet corn, lima beans, peppers, and ornamentals

First sighting:

Ulster Co. (2008)

Impacts:

  • Pitting and scarring of affected fruit
  • Mealy texture in the fruit
  • May be unmarketable as a fresh product
  • Severe damage can render crop unusable for processed products




Species:

European crane fly (Tipula paludosa)

Photo credit: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Hayfields, pastures, turf grass, vegetable, and small fruit crops

First sighting:

Erie and Niagara (2004)

Impacts:

  • Larvae (leatherjackets) feed on roots of hay, pastures, turf grass, sugar beets, turnips, carrots damaging growth of the plants
  • Larvae also emerge to feed on stems and grass blades on damp warm nights
  • Damage can also occur on golf greens from birds pecking out the larvae during the spring




Species:

False coddling moth (Thaumatotibia leucotreta)

Photo credit: Pest and Diseases Image Library, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Grapes, peaches, plums, cherries, beans, tomatoes, peppers, apricots, corn, and English walnuts

First sighting:

Not known to be established in North America (a single male was trapped in California, in 2008) on watch list

Impacts:

  • Larval feeding and development causing premature ripening and fruit drop
  • External indications may be seen as scarring on the fruit
  • Feeds on more than 100 types of fruit trees and field crops



Species:

Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum)

Photo credit: Terry English, USDA APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.org

Commodity:

Human and livestock health concerns

First sighting:

Monroe Co. (1917)

Impacts:

  • Phytophotodermatitis: contact with sap ultra- sensitize the skin to ultraviolet radiation and can result in severe burns, blistering, painful sores, and purplish or blackened scars
  • Sap in eyes can result in blindness
  • Affected areas may remain hypersensitive to ultraviolet light for many years and re-eruptions of lesions and blisters may occur
  • Toxic to livestock when mixed in with hay
  • Outcompetes native vegetation for habitat and sunlight




Species:

Golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis)

Photo credit: Central Science Laboratory, Harpenden Archive, British Crown, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant

First sighting:

Nassau Co. (1941)

Impacts:

  • Bores into the roots of host plants and feeds on their juices
  • Results in poor plant growth
  • Causes wilting, stunted growth, poor root development, and early plant death




Species:

European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana)

Photo credit: William Cochran, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Primarily grapes; also blackberries, cherries, nectarines, persimmons

First sighting:

Not present in New York; on watch list

Impacts:

  • First-generation larvae web and feed on flower clusters
  • Second-generation larvae feed on green berries, hollowing the berry, leaving skin and seeds
  • Third-generation larvae web and feed inside berries and within bunches, which become contaminated with excrement
  • Damage to berries exposes them to infection by secondary fungi
  • Generally only active at night from sunset to sunrise, and fly mainly at dusk, resting on the vines during the day.



Species:

Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium)

Commodity:

Stored grains - whole grain and cereals; dried plant & animal materials; dried seeds, grains, fruits, and spices

First sighting:

California (1953)

Current counties:

All known NY sightings have been eradicated

Impacts:

  • Considered one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world
  • Can destroy or consume up to 70% of its weight of stored grain
  • Contaminates stored grain, seeds, and other materials, causing health issues
  • Can easily be spread through movement of infested stored grains and packing materials
  • Few isolated infestations in NY have been successfully eradicated




Species:

Late blight (Phytophthora infestans)

Commodity:

Potatoes, tomatoes

First sighting:

New York City (1843)

Impacts:

  • Destroys leaves, stems, fruits, and tubers of potato and tomato plants
  • Fungus sporangia from infected plant tissues disperse to healthy tissues via rain splash or wind currents
  • The fungus can survive in infected potato tubers in storage or the soil after harvest or anywhere potatoes might be discarded
  • Infected tubers may survive if they are not destroyed (frozen, crushed, composted, or buried at least 2 feet beneath the soil surface)
  • Infected tubers that are planted or survive the winter may be sources of the pathogen that initiate epidemics the following season




Species:

Light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana)

Photo credit: Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania Archive, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Alfalfa, apples, peaches, pears, grapes, blackberries, blueberries, currants, broad beans, broccoli, cabbage, potatoes, clover, geraniums, roses, hawthorn, oak, pine, poplar, and spruce

First sighting:

2007 (San Francisco Bay area, CA); Not yet in NY, on watch list

Impacts:

  • Larval feeding on the fruit causes irregular brown areas on the surface, lowering value of fruit
  • Occasionally, larvae enter the fruit to feed, rendering fruit unmarketable



Species:

Oak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum)

Photo credit: William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, Bugwood.org

Click here to view the NYIS.INFO oak wilt species profile.

Commodity:

All species of oak

First sighting:

Schenectady Co. (2008)

Current counties:

Believed to have been eradicated in 2009

Impacts:

  • Grows in water conducting vessel of oak trees, preventing water transport within the tree
  • As water movement decreases, leaves wilt and drop off
  • Eventually the tree dies (red oaks may die within weeks of attack; white oaks may survive years)
  • One of the most serious tree diseases in eastern U.S., killing thousands of oaks each year




Species:

Pyralid moth, European pepper moth (Duponchelia fovealis)

Photo credit: Mark Dreiling, Retired, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Peppers, begonias, corn tomatoes, squash, strawberries

First sighting:

Westchester (2011)

Impacts:

  • Larvae cause damage to roots, leaves, flowers, buds and fruit
  • In leaves, feeding damage appears first as rounded or crescent-shaped bites on the outside of leaves; eventually the whole leaf is eaten
  • Leaves that are attacked are usually at the base of the plant but leaves higher in the canopy can also be attacked if plants are very close together
  • In potted plants, where the soil is not hard packed around the roots, larvae can be found below the soil line feeding on roots




Species:

Spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)

Photo credit: Pest and Diseases Image Library, Bugwood.org

Click here to visit the Cornell Berry Team Spotted Wing Drosophila page

Commodity:

Raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, sweet cherries, peaches, grapes, pears, and tomatoes

First sighting:

Suffolk Co. (2011)

Impacts:

  • Females can directly penetrate fruit skin to lay eggs inside
  • Larvae destroy ripe, marketable soft-skinned fruit in which they develop
  • Fruit turns soft and leaks liquid as the larvae feed inside the fruit
  • Estimated losses of up to 100% of crop without control measures in late summer fruits such as raspberry, blackberry and blueberry




Species:

Summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana)

Photo credit: Pest and Diseases Image Library, Bugwood.org

Commodity:

Apple, cherry, pear, maple, birch, hawthorn, forsythia, ash, honeysuckle, alfalfa, poplar, oak, rose, willow, elm, and lilac

First sighting:

Not yet known to be in United States; has been intercepted at ports of entry

Impacts:

  • More than 120 plants on the Federally Registered Threatened and Endangered Species list are attacked by SFTM
  • Considered to be the most damaging leaf roller in Europe



Species:

Swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii Keiffer)

Commodity:

Cruciferous vegetable crops such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. Also, canola, collard, horseradish, kale, mustard, rutabaga, turnip, and radish

First sighting:

Niagara (2004)

Impacts:

  • Formation of leaf and flower galls and a misshapen growing point
  • Distorted growing tips, multiple growing tips, or no growing tips
  • Young leaves may become swollen or crumpled
  • Leaf petioles or stems may exhibit brown scarring




New York State County Map

 


Resources

  

Bugs & Blights poster, 24" x 36" - (7.34 Mb) - CLICK ABOVE IMAGE TO DOWNLOAD

 

Bug & Blights brochure, 4-panel, 2-sided, 8.5" x 14" - (1.57 Mb) - CLICK ABOVE IMAGE TO DOWNLOAD

Agricultural Weeds poster, 24" x 36" - (1.74 Mb) - CLICK ABOVE IMAGE TO DOWNLOAD

Agricultural Weeds brochure, 4-panel, 2-sided, 8.5" x 14" - (1 Mb) - CLICK ABOVE IMAGE TO DOWNLOAD

Giant Hogweed ID brochure, 2-sided, 8.5" x 14", (1.2 Mb) - CLICK ABOVE IMAGE TO DOWNLOAD

CCE Invasive Species Program flyer, 4-pages, 8.5" x 11" - CLICK ABOVE IMAGE TO DOWNLOAD

NYS Department of Ag & Markets Warehouse Poster, 18" x 24", (sample is 1.4 Mb).  Contact Tim Sweeney at NYS Dept. of Ag & Markets to inquire about a copy. Click image above to see a large sample